Maths plays an integral part in the primary curriculum. It introduces children to concepts, skills and thinking strategies that help with everyday life. Maths is a creative and highly into connected discipline that has been developed over centuries, providing the solution to some of history's most intriguing problems. A high quality maths education provides a foundation for understanding the world, the ability to reason mathematically, an appreciation of beauty and power of mathematics, and a sense of enjoyment curiosity about the subject.
Key Stage 1
The principal focus of mathematics teaching in key stage one is to ensure that pupils develop confidence and mental fluency with whole numbers, counting and place value. This should involve working with numerals, words and the four operations, including with practical resources; for example, concrete objects and measuring tools.
At this stage, peoples should develop their ability to describe, draw, compare and sort different shapes and use the related vocabulary. Teaching should also involve using a range of measures to describe and compare different quantities such as length, mass, capacity/volume, time and money.
By the end of year 2, people should know the number bonds to 20 and be precise in using and understanding place value. And emphasis on practice at this early stage will aid fluency. Pupils should read and spell mathematical vocabulary, at a level consistent with their increasing word reading and spelling knowledge at key stage one.
Key Stage 2
Lower Key Stage 2
In lower key stage 2 pupils become increasingly fluent with whole numbers and the four operations number facts and the concept of place value. This should ensure that pupils develop efficient written and mental methods and perform calculations accurately with increasingly large whole numbers.
At this stage, pupils should develop the ability to solve a range of problems, including with simple fractions and decimal place value. Teaching should also ensure that pupils draw with increasing accuracy and develop mathematical reasoning so they can analyse shapes and their properties, and confidently describe the relationship between them. It should ensure that they can use measuring instruments with accuracy and make connections between measure and number.
By the end of year four, pupils should have memorised the multiplication tables up to and including the 12 multiplication table and show precision and fluency in their work.
Pupils should read and spell mathematical vocabulary correctly and confidently, using their growing word reading knowledge and their knowledge of spelling.
Upper Key Stage 2
In upper key stage 2 pupils extend their understanding of the number and place value to include the larger integers. This should develop the connections that people make between multiplication and division and fractions, decimals, percentages and ratio.
At this stage, pupils should develop their ability to solve a wider range of problems, including increasingly complex properties of numbers and arithmetic, and problems demanding efficient writing and mental methods of calculation. With this foundation in a tick, pupils are introduced to the language of algebra as a means for solving a variety of problems. Teaching in geometry and measures should consolidate and extend knowledge developed in number. Teaching should also ensure that pupils classify shapes with increasingly complex geometric properties and that they learn the vocabulary they need to describe them.
By the end of year 6 pupils should be fluent in written methods for all four operations, including multiplication and division, and in working in fractions, decimals and percentages.